As previously mentioned, the integration of a MOSFET allows for high levels of circuit efficiency when compared with BJTs. P-channel MOSFETs can be used with PMOS logic to implement digital circuitry and logic gates.
NMOS logic is similar to PMOS logic with the exception that N-channel MOSFETs are applied to logic gates and related digital circuitry. As a general rule, N-channel MOSFETs can be smaller than P-channel MOSFETs which makes them more attractive in certain situations. However, NMOS logic constantly consumes power whereas PMOS logic does not.
Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) logic is a technology used to produce integrated circuits. Such circuits are featured across a range of electrical components and are known to generate electrical power. Both P and N-channel MOSFETs are used in conjunction with connected gates and drains in order to reduce power consumption and excess heat generation.
Depletion Mode MOSFET Devices
Depletion mode MOSFET devices are among the less common types of MOSFETs. They have a low channel resistance, with the channel being considered as ‘ON’. When set to the no-power state these switches will conduct in accordance with their design. The channel resistance will be linear, with low distortion across the signal amplitude range.
All MOSFETs are MISFETs (Metal Insulator Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors) but not all MISFETs are MOSFETs. The gate dialectic insulator featured in this type of component is silicon dioxide in a MOSFET, however, alternative materials can be used. The gate dialectic is positioned underneath the gate electrode and above the MISFET channel.
Floating-Gate MOSFETs (FGMOS)
The floating-gate MOSFET features an electronically isolated gate. This has the effect of generating a floating node in DC together with a range of secondary gate inputs situated above the floating gate. Among various other uses, the FGMOS is typically used as a floating-gate memory cell.
The structure of the power MOSFET is vertical, rather than planar. This allows the transistor to maintain high blocking voltage and high current simultaneously. The transistor voltage rating corresponds directly to the doping and thickness of the N-epitaxial layer, with the current rating being a result of the channel width. There is also a direct link between the component area and level of current that can be sustained by this type of device. The power MOSFET allows for low gate drive functionality, rapid switching speed, and advanced paralleling capabilities.
These double-diffused metal oxide semiconductors come in lateral and vertical varieties. The majority of power MOSFETs are constructed using this kind of technology.
This type of capacitator has the MOSFET structure, with the MOS capacitator being flanked by dual P-N junctions. It is typically used as a memory chip storage capacitator and support for the charge-coupled device (CCD) in image sensor technology.
The thin-film transistor (TFT) is a unique type of MOSFET. Creating this variety involves the deposition of thin semiconductor films, combined with a dialectic layer and metallic contacts over a supporting substrate. A range of semiconductor materials may be used, with silicone being a common variety. They can be made to be completely transparent and are used in the manufacture of video display panels.
The BiCMOS is an integrated circuit featuring BJT and CMOS transistors on a single chip. The insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) has similar functionality to the MOSFET and bipolar junction transistor (BJT).
A range of MOS sensors has been developed to accurately measure physical, chemical, biological, and environmental variables. Examples include the open-gate FET (OGFET), ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET), gas sensor FET, charge flow transistor (CFT), and enzyme-modified FET. Commonly used sensors used for digital imaging include the couple-charged device (CCD) and active-pixel sensor (CMOS sensor).
Multi-Gate Field Effect Transistors
The dual-gate MOSFET has a tetrode configuration, with the level of current being controlled by the two gates. It is typically used for small-signal devices in radio frequency applications that call for the reduction of gain loss associated with the Miller effect. This effect occurs when separate transistors are replaced in a cascode configuration.
It is quite common for the enclosed-layout transistor (ELT) to be used to create a radiation hardened by design (RHBD) device. The gate of the MOSFET typically surrounds the drain, which is situated close to the centre of the ELT. The source of the MOSFET surrounds the gate in this instance. The H-gate is another type of MOSFET which ensures minimal radiation leakage.