AC-DC converters are electrical circuits that transform alternating current (AC) input into a direct current (DC) output. They are most commonly used in electronic power applications where the power input, a 50 Hz or 60 Hz sine-wave, requires power conversion from AC to create a DC output. AC to DC converters use bridge rectifiers to turn AC input into a DC output along with regulators to adjust the voltage level. Converters also use reservoir capacitors to smooth the pulsating DC. Primarily, the 230V AC power is stepped-down to 12V AC.